Physics with a Multi-MW Proton source
Submitted contributions

2) A low-energy beta-beam facility

Maria Cristina VOLPE, Institut de Physique Nucleaire Orsay, Batiment 100, F-91406 Orsay cedex, France

Subject: Other

Type of contribution: Paper

Recently, we have proposed to exploit the beta-beam concept to produce intense and pure low-energy neutrino beams of well-known fluxes [1]. Low energies means a few tens of MeV up to about a hundred MeV. Two configurations are possible: the ions are produced, brought inside a 4pi detector
and used as a neutrino source at rest; the ions are accelerated to different gamma values
producing neutrino beams of variable energy.

The idea of having a low-energy beta-beam facility opens new axis of research with respect to the original beta-beam project. A low-energy beta-beam facility would offer the possibility to improve our knowledge of non-standard neutrino properties, like the neutrino magnetic moment [2], as well as to perform systematic studies of neutrino-nucleus interactions, of interest for nuclear physics, particle physics and astrophysics [1,3]. In particular, the present upper limit on the neutrino magnetic moment
can be improved by about one order of magnitude [2]. Interesting neutrino-nucleus interaction rates can be obtained both with a small (GSI-like) and a large (CERN-like) storage rings [3].

Among the possible sites for a low-energy beta-beam facility CERN represents a unique site both for the intensities that can be achieved and the energies of the ions.

[1] C.Volpe,
"What about a beta-beam facility for low energy neutrinos?", to be published in Journal of Physics G [hep-ph/0303222].
[2] G.C. McLaughlin and C. Volpe,
"Prospects for detecting a neutrino magnetic moment with a tritium source and beta-beams", to be published in Physics Letters B [hep-ph/0312156].
[3] J. Serreau and C.Volpe,
""Neutrino-nucleus interaction rates at a low-energy beta-beam facility"", submitted to PRD [hep-ph/0403293].

4) RIASH: Radioactive Ions and Atoms in Superfluid Helium

P. Dendooven
KVI, Groningen, The Netherlands
J. Äystö, J. Huikari, IGISOL group
Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
W.X. Huang
Institute of Modern Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China
K. Gloos
Ørsted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
N. Takahashi
Osaka Gakuin University, Japan
J.P. Pekola
Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

Subject: Other

Type of contribution: Poster

The RIASH project investigates several issues related to radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium. The use of superfluid helium to stop high-energy radioactive ions and extract them as an ultra-cold ion beam is being developed. Proof-of-principle of this new technique was recently obtained by the authors [1]. Using superfluid helium as a storage medium for ions and atoms as well as the use of ions and atoms for probing the superfluid state are being looked at.
Some results and ideas will be presented. More particularly, the possibility to create radioactive muonic atoms inside superfluid helium will be explored. The potential of this alternative technique will be compared with other existing or proposed methods. The main items in this comparison are the technical challenges involved and the attainable muonic atom production rates.

[1] W.X. Huang, P. Dendooven, K. Gloos, N. Takahashi, J.P. Pekola, J. Äystö, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 687.

7) 3D Modeling of the Debuncher and Achromat

Andreas Adelmann (PSI)

Subject: High power proton drivers

Type of contribution: Paper

PSI is involved in the development of a suite of powerful state-of-the-art modeling tools which enables us to gain quantitative understanding of space charge dominated beam transport. We use these tools mainly to perform beam dynamics studies on our CW cyclotron, delivering now up to 1.2 MW beam power on target with a proton final energy of 590 MeV. The general nature of one of the tools – Mad9p (Methodological Accelerator Design Version 9 Parallel) - a full 3d parallel tracking code with space charge allows us to perform beam dynamic studies beyond the usual tasks at PSI. In the frame of the CERN studies for a Neutrino Factory we performed calculations of the Debuncher and the 2.2 GeV Achromat. We show results and discuss the possibilities for a full accumulator ring simulation.

8) CUPP - Centre for Underground Physics in Pyhäsalmi

Timo Enqvist and Chanqguan Shen
CUPP, P.O. Box 22, FIN-86801 Pyhäsalmi, Finland

T. Jämsen, M. Lehtola, M. Mutanen, J. Narkilahti, S. Nurmenniemi, and
J. Peltoniemi
CUPP, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland

Subject: Other

Type of contribution: Paper

The CUPP project aims at establishing an underground research centre in the Pyhäsalmi mine in Pyhäjärvi, Finland. It is the deepest operational base-metal mine in Europe. The mine can be divided into two parts: the old mine and the new mine. The new mine extends down to 1440 metres where the mining operation is going. The existing caverns of the old mine, situating on the top of the new mine at depths 95-1080 m, can be used for scientific purposes at the moment.

The site provides excellent opportunities for the research of underground physics by having very stable bedrock, low background radiation level, modern infrastructure, and good traffic conditions all around a year. The neutrino background due to nuclear reactors is the smallest among the European underground laboratories.

The present activities focus on cosmic ray experiments. A multimuon experiment at shallow depth is under construction, using recycled muon chambers from CERN. Neutrino experiments are under consideration.

The construction of new large-volume underground laboratory rooms, at the depth of about 1500 metres, corresponding 4200 mwe, is technically possible and economically feasible. The laboratory rooms could host far detectors of the future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. For example, the distance between Pyhäjärvi and CERN is 2288 km, which is very interesting for neutrino studies. The baseline and its density profile have been modelled very accurately, and simulations for the neutrino factory are going on.

Observing neutrinos from a multi-MW machine in Pyhäsalmi provides an interesting option. There is no technical obstacle for excavating the large volume detector caverns, up to one million cubic metres like UNO, if their shape can be optimised.

9) Other Study on a Mono-modal Accelerating Cavity based on Photonic Band-gap Concepts

A. Andreone, E. Di Gennaro, F. Francomacaro, G. Lamura
Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and I.N.F.M. Coherentia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli

M.R. Masullo
I.N.F.N. Sezione di Napoli

V.G. Vaccaro
Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and I.N.F.N. Sezione di Napoli, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli

Vincenzo Palmieri, Giorgio Keppel and Diego Tonini

Subject: High power proton drivers

Type of contribution: Paper

One of the main problems of present and future experiments with high intensity beams is the presence of high order modes (HOMs) which might degrade the beam quality. Accelerating cavities require HOMs suppression while keeping high quality factor (Q) fundamental mode. Both these requirements can be hardly met in closed metallic cavities. In low frequency cases and for particular geometries it is possible to partially suppress HOMs, but at high frequencies and for superconducting cavities configuration becomes cumbersome and technically unviable).
We propose here a new type of a high gradient, high Q accelerator cavity based on Photonic Band Gap (PBG) concepts and operating in the microwave region. The structure consists of a two-dimensional lattice, where posts (dielectric, metallic or superconducting) are sandwiched by two conducting or superconducting plates. This sandwich exhibits two kinds of frequency bands: “pass-bands” and “stop-bands”. Defect modes can be localized inside the lattice in an equivalent cavity obtained by removing posts. In this way, one can obtain a quasi-mono-modal cavity with a high Q fundamental mode and HOMs falling into the pass bands. Due to its intrinsic monomodal behaviour the PBG cavity can be easily scaled to different frequencies. Here, we will present our studies on different prototypes (Copper and metallic/dielectric) working in the 2-20 GHz range. The related RF measurements (scattering parameters) carried out at room and cryogenic temperature on the prototypes are shown as well.